David Mattson brings intimate familiarity with grizzly bears and grizzly bear science informed by over 35 years as a wildlife researcher. David also has decades of experience assembling and interpreting science in support of litigation, together with both theoretical and practical insight into relations between science and policy.

Steve Primm is a nationally-recognized expert on grizzly bear-human coexistence. He brings a wealth of on-the-ground experience implementing coexistence between grizzly bears and humans in rural landscapes--as well as an inspired vision for what's possible. 

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Redefining Recovery

Coexisting with Grizzly Bears

The Problem


This video addresses a fundamental problem. The current US Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan, finalized in 1993, is outdated and in urgent need of revision. The current Plan fails to account for a monumental amount of relevant research published since 1992. Equally relevant, the current Plan articulates an impoverished and outdated vision of recovery for grizzly bears in the contiguous United States that fails to envision what’s possible, scientifically defensible, and needed to ensure long-term viability.

The Remedy


Steve Primm and David Mattson offer a path forward. The USFWS needs to revise its current 1993 Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan to reflect the best available science and an emerging consensus regarding requirements for long-term viability--notably the need for large connected populations totaling 1000s of individuals with both genetic and demographic connectivity. This kind of revision also needs to reflect lessons learned from on-the-ground experience with successful coexistence between people and grizzly bears, which contributes to a more generous and meaningful vision of recovery for grizzly bears in the contiguous United States.






Piikani Nation Treaty



Find out everything you ever wanted to know about the biology and ecology of grizzly bears. Authored by world-renowned bear biologist Dr. David Mattson, this site summarizes and synthesizes in beautiful graphic form the science of grizzly bears.


Find out how much Native Americans care about the grizzly bear, with a Grizzly Treaty that has been signed by more than 270 tribes, as well as numerous traditional societies and leaders. The document has become a symbol of international unity in defense of sovereignty, spiritual and religious protection, and treaty rights. 


For an in depth and comprehensive look at the ecology and demography of grizzly bears in the northern US Rocky Mountains, along with all the research relevant to conservation of these bears, see Mostly Natural History of the Northern Rocky Mountains.


GOAL is a coalition of nearly 50 tribes  (and counting) who object to the federal and state plans to delist grizzly bears prematurely and allow trophy

hunting of this sacred being.

GOAL advocates for the tribes'

legal right to meaningful consultation and also for the reconection of tribal peoples to their traditional homelands

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